Do Capitals In Web Addresses Make Any Difference?
January 25, 2020
A while back I
Capitals In Email Addresses Make Any Difference?
people also often wonder "do capitals in web addresses make
A web address, also known as an URL (Uniform Resource
Locator), is that often-long character string you type (or
better, paste) into the address bar of your web browser to go
to a webpage. It starts with http, or https for more secure
websites like Apscitu.com.
Just after comes a separator, consisting of a colon and two
forward slashes -- https:// -- that many find ugly and
off-putting (and the two forward slashes weren't technically
Then before the next forward slash comes the domain name,
which contains subdomains separated by dots; for example,
https://Apscitu.com or https://www.Apscitu.com. (Technically
www is a subdomain that should go to a different webpage from
the domain it precedes, but almost always it goes to the same
webpage. www has become prettier shorthand for http:// when
giving web addresses.) The domain name gives the web server
computer's address on the Internet.
After the domain name and the next forward slash comes one or
more directories separated by forward slashes; for example
www.Apscitu.com/SecureContact. These are directories on the
web server computer.
At the end of the web address is a file name with a .html
suffix; for example www.Apscitu.com/SecureContact/index.html.
If no file is given, as is often the case, then the file
index.html is assumed. This file contains HTML code to
generate the webpage in your browser.
So do capitals in web addresses make any difference? In more
technical terms, are web addresses "case-sensitive"? For
example, is www.Apscitu.com/SecureContact the same as
Domain names are defined as no-caps in the Internet standards.
Otherwise, hackers would go crazy with getting domain names
for their scam websites that differ just by capitalization
from legitimate domain names and websites, so that they could
easily fool people into going to those scam websites; for
example, GOOGLE.COM instead of google.com.
The domain name is converted to an IP address, for routing on
the Internet, by a DNS (Domain Name System) server computer on
the Internet. This conversion is, for the reason given,
programmed not to be case-sensitive.
A web server computer often hosts more than one website and
uses the domain name to determine which website is being
requested. The web server computer is usually programmed to
not be case-sensitive for domain names.
The directories and files in the web address are a different
matter. Web server computers that use Linux as the operating
system are case-sensitive. For example, the directory
securecontact is different from the directory SecureContact.
Web server computers that use the more simplistic Microsoft
Windows are not case-sensitive.
There are reasons directories and files are left
case-sensitive on some Linux web server computers, but in
general you would set them up to not be case-sensitive. I
administer my own web server, which you are using right now,
and I have set it up to not be case-sensitive: securecontact
is the same as SecureContact.
Since this is not always the case though, you should always
try to type -- copying and pasting it is best -- the web
address exactly as given with regards to capitalization or the
webpage you are requesting may not be